Oil pollution Facts

Oil pollution Facts - Oil pollution in ocean waters, causing a vapor barrier rapidly affecting the marine fauna, especially mammals and birds. But it also prevents gas exchange and the passage of sunlight, phytoplankton elements used in photosynthesis.

Oil pollution Facts

Oil is a hydrocarbon, organic compound consisting solely of carbon and hydrogen. The oil is highly polluting, and its spill in ocean waters, is becoming more common, and its effects are prolonged for a long time, forming an impervious film on the surface, rapidly affecting aquatic wildlife, mostly birds and mammals . 

The contamination by crude or refined home can be accidental or intentional. Nearly half the oil that reaches ocean waters come from land, swept by river currents. Another important part comes from the waste of the boats that ply the seas every day. 

It is estimated that around 1.5 billion tonnes of oil are transported annually by the seas. It is also common for tankers using sea water as ballast and return contaminated with oil. Other tankers pump the waste oil at sea as waste. It is estimated that these two forms are thrown into the sea 3.5 million tons of oil. 

Another form of pollution comes from drilling oil and gas wells in coastal waters and underwater pipes leak. In the oil industry, spilling almost half in the drilling area, which means big losses and pollution of air, water and soil. The traditional way to remove or recover the oil with water is pumped which represents a substantial loss of water. 

Oil pollution accidents: 
In 1979 in the Gulf of Mexico, occurred the largest oil spill at sea, in the Ixtoc-1 oil well. It took eight months to plug the leak and spilled 700 million gallons of oil into the Gulf waters. However, the volume of oil spilled at times, is less than the volume of oil spewing from the well during normal operations: washing with water tankers marine, transportation, and oil-contaminated water drawn by the ocean. Natural outbreaks also release large quantities of oil into the ocean in several places. 

In 1983 came the biggest crash of a tanker, Bellver Castle, which caught fire and spilled nearly 300 million gallons of oil off the coast of Cape Town, South Africa. 

Each week occurs spills of oil or other pollutants. There is a type of bacteria that produce a highly viscous polysaccharide, known as "xanthan gum", which functions as a thickener, and mixed with the water used to extract oil from wells in a more easy and economical. Also used in the oil recovery process. 

The effects of oil pollution:
The effects of marine pollutants depend on several factors: type of oil, amount, distance from the beach contaminated site, time of year, weather conditions, mean water temperature and currents 
Ocean. The oil forms a waterproof layer on the water, which prevents the passage of sunlight used by phytoplankton for photosynthesis process, interfere with gas exchange, covering the skin and gills of aquatic animals, causing death by asphyxiation . 

Oil spilled at sea evaporates or is degraded by bacteria, in a very slow process. Volatile organic hydrocarbons immediately kill several types of aquatic organisms, particularly larval stage. In the warm waters of these hydrocarbons evaporate into the atmosphere, in one or two days, and cold water this may take up to a week. 

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What Causes Water Pollution?

What Causes Water Pollution? - Water pollution refers to the changes in the physical, biological, and chemical conditions of the water bodies that would disrupt the balance of the ecosystem.

Like other types of pollution, water pollution results when a large amount of waste coming from different sources of pollutants can no longer be accommodated by the natural ecosystem. Consequently, when the wastes are not destroyed as fast as produced, they make other organisms that are not beneficial to humans and many. But that's not all. Learn more about what causes water pollution. Actually there is a reason behind what causes water pollution. However, it is important to familiarize yourself with the two main categories of water pollution. Some pollution comes directly from one specific location. Type of pollution is called point source pollution such as sewage pipes that drain polluted water into rivers and farmland. Meanwhile, non-point source pollution is pollution that comes from large areas like gasoline and other debris from the highway that goes into lakes and rivers.

What are the causes of water pollution? Who should be responsible for causing the harm brought by their pollutants? How do these sources of pollution pollute different bodies of water?

One of the main causes of water pollution that has caused serious environmental health problems and is a pollutant that comes from chemical and industrial processes. When factories and manufacturers pour chemicals and livestock wastes directly into rivers and streams, the water becomes poisonous and oxygen levels are depleted causing many aquatic organisms die. These wastes include solvents and toxic substances. Most of the waste is not biodegradable. Power plants, paper mills, refineries, automobile factories dispose waste into the river.

The hot water from the power plant is called thermal pollution. This kills aquatic animals and plants by reducing the oxygen content of the water. Power plants use water to cool their engines, thus changing the temperature of the water.

Aside from thermal pollution, there are also organic and inorganic pollutants. Organic wastes include refuse from slaughter houses, fish and meat canning factories, and leather tanning companies, manufacturing plants, pesticides and crude oil companies. Since organic wastes are decomposed by microorganisms, most of the oxygen dissolved in the water used and the exhaust starts to stink.

Inorganic wastes include toxic and corrosive substances such as acids, heavy metals, mercury, cadmium and lead that can interfere with normal body processes. Battery manufacturers, mining, paper mills increase the concentration of mercury making the water dangerous and poisonous to most things living.

Another cause of water pollution from pesticides. Agricultural pesticides poison aquatic plants and animals. Animal manure, chemical fertilizers, phosphate detergent pollutes water by providing excess nutrients. Pollution is known as eutrophication. This greatly increases the growth of algae in water thereby reducing the amount of oxygen levels in the water caused the death of many aquatic organisms.

Water is also polluted by garbage specifically plastics and other plastic-like substances. Some plastic like nylon can fish and other marine animals involved. Plastics that have broken into smaller pieces can be eaten by sea creatures which may cause their death. Since plastic is non-biodegradable, it will continue to kill more fish.

One of the many causes of water pollution is derived from household waste. Because no one wants to live in polluted areas, near the dumpsite or a landfill, waste water and untreated dirt washed from the home polluting different bodies of water. Most developing countries practice this type of sewage disposal. Even in developed countries to poor discharge canal treated to cause the main body of water. The danger is when the sewage pipes break and contaminate drinking water. When this happens, the damage will open a wide range of waterborne diseases that will surely pose a danger to consumers.

Last pollution of the water causes personal care and household products. Shampoo, lotion, moisturizer, hair dye, bleach, detergent, fabric softener, and many others contribute to air pollution. Human waste is not the only one who entered into the gutter. This product is also joining the wastewater pollutes rivers, streams, and lakes.

Although the world is full of water, only three percent of it is drinkable. Included in the 3% of drinking water sources are rivers, spring, rivers, lakes, and waterfalls are constantly threatened and contaminated by various factors that cause water pollution. If the sources of water pollution are not controlled, this basic necessity will eventually become a rare commodity only a few can afford to have.

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Air Pollution Facts

Air Pollution Facts - Every time we breathe, the average adult breathes over 3,000 gallons (11.4 m3) of air each day. Although not visible to the eye, the air pollutants threaten our lives and beings. Air pollutants Cause cancer and other serious health effects, cause smog and acid rain, ozone layer protection reduce power in the upper atmosphere, and the potential to contribute to global climate change. Actually, what we should look at the phenomenon of air pollution?

1. 7 Main Pollutants

7 consists of the main pollutant particulates, sulfur dioxide (SO2), Ozone, Carbon Monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), hydrocarbons (HC) and Lead (Pb).

2. Acid Rain

Acid rain is a common term to describe the fall of acid from the atmosphere to the earth. Actually decrease acid from the atmosphere to the earth and not just in a "wet" but also "dry". Thus it is known also by the term deposition (reduction / precipitation) wet and dry deposition.

When this acid rain on the land, it can be bad for plants and animals, depending on the concentration of the acid, the chemical content of the soil, buffering capacity (the ability of the soil to hold water or pH changes), and the type of plants / animals affected.

Approximately 50% of the acidity in the atmosphere fall back to earth through dry deposition. Then the wind carrying the acid gases and particles in buildings, cars, homes dozen trees. When it rains, acid particles attached to the buildings or trees will be flushed, resulting in surface water (runoff) are acidic.

The wind can carry acidic material on dry and wet deposition across the city and country borders for hundreds of miles. According to experts, the SO2 and Knox are a major cause of acid rain. Acid rain occurs when these gases react in the atmosphere with water, oxygen, and other chemicals that contain acids. Sunlight increases the speed of their reactions. The result is a solution of sulfuric acid and Nitric acid (low concentration).

To measure the acidity of acid rain, a pH meter is used. Pure water pH of 7.0 indicates acidic water has a pH of less than 7 (from 0-7), and the alkaline water showed a pH of more than 7 (from 7-14). Normal rainwater is slightly acidic, a pH of about 5.6 due to carbon dioxide (CO2) and water react to form carbonic acid (a weak acid). If the rain has a pH below 5.6 is considered already contaminated by acidic gases in the atmosphere. Rain said if the acid rain has a pH below 5.0. The lower the pH of the rain waters the more severe impact on living organisms.

3. Depletion of the Ozone Hole
Ozone in the upper layer (the stratosphere), a naturally occurring, and protect the earth. But man-made chemicals (ODS) have damaged the lining, causing the depletion of the ozone layer. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) contain chlorine (chlorine), fluorine (fluorine) and carbon (carbon). CFC is a major actor of the ozone layer depletion.

Ozone Hole Caused by Air Pollution

In the air, ODS substances are degraded very slowly. Intact form they can last for many years and they are moving beyond the troposphere and reach the stratosphere. In the stratosphere, due to the intensity of the sun's ultraviolet rays, they rupture, and release chlorine and bromine molecules, which can damage the ozone layer. The researchers estimate that one chlorine atom can destroy 100,000 ozone molecules.

Although current ozone depleting chemicals have been reduced or eliminated, but its use in time past can still have an impact on the destruction of the ozone layer. Depletion of the ozone layer can be studied using satellite measurements, especially at the poles of the earth.

Thinning of the protective ozone layer would increase the amount of solar radiation to the earth that can cause many cases of skin cancer, cataracts, and weakened immune systems. Exposure to excessive UV can also lead to an increase in melanoma disease, a fatal skin cancer. According to the U.S. EPA, since 1990, the risk of melanoma has doubled.

UV can also damage sensitive crops, such as soybeans, and reduce crop yields. Several studies have shown that the phytoplankton in the ocean, which is the basis of the marine food chain, has been under pressure due to ultraviolet. This pressure can have an impact on the human food supply in the form of sea impact.

The issue of the depletion of the ozone hole has become an international issue by the UN Office for the Environment, United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), since 1987. A convention protocol, known as the Montreal Protocol, invites countries that have signed the convention to eliminate CFC production gradually on January 1, 1996. If this effort is successful, the ozone layer will return to normal in 2050.

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Causes of Air Pollution

Causes of Air Pollution - The air in the environment contaminated by pollutants that are not clean anymore is impaired for living and people around. With the advancement of technology today, air pollution has caused a lot of concern, especially in the industrial areas. Causes of air pollution can result from:

Motor vehicle
All motor vehicles that use petrol and diesel would emit gases CO, Nitrogen Oxides, sulfur dioxide and other particles and waste combustion.

These elements when it reaches a certain quantum can be toxic to humans or animals. For example, the CO gas is toxic to function of blood, SO2 can cause respiratory diseases.

Factory industry
For industrial plant among many raw materials using organic chemicals and inorganic. As produce useful products for the benefit of human life are secreted products can be useless even poison. Products that are clearly useless are discarded and can damage the environment, such as interference in the lives of environmental and sustainability when no control.

Various forms of the disease will occur in the surrounding community or the workers themselves due to the introduction of substances into the body waste. For example with emergence called Pneumoconiosis disease, a class of diseases that is caused by the accumulation of dust in the lungs.

To determine whether the person is stricken with a lung disease caused by accumulation of dust in the lungs, it is not easy if only based on the abnormalities that occur in the body. There should be a history of the work or living environment they always or often use to deal with harmful dusts such as never worked or lived around mining’s, ceramics factory and others.

Abnormalities body depends on the number pad dust arising in the lung, the widest part of the affected increasingly lung symptoms, although it is not always true. The symptoms include dry cough, shortness of breath, general fatigue, weight loss, a lot of phlegm and others.

Specifically for the treatment of this disease is virtually non-existent. Giving drugs are generally only intended to alleviate the suffering and the symptoms that arise. The only action is concerned is no longer dangerous vacuuming earlier.

Thus, prevention is a necessary priority. Prevention costs are relatively meager when compared with disease.

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Water Pollution Facts

Water Pollution Facts  - A simple definition of water pollution can be presented as "contamination of the water making it unsuitable for use." Most of the water resources of the earth are polluted. Although our planet is covered with 70% water, all is not suitable for human use. Rapid industrialization, the improper use of scarce water resources and many other factors play a role in the process of water pollution. 

Each year about 400 billion tons of waste is produced worldwide. Most of these wastes are discharged into water bodies. Total out of the water on earth only 3% is fresh water. If fresh water is often polluted, the water crisis would become grave in the near future. The facts about water pollution presented in this article should help you understand the seriousness of this problem. We seek to better understand water pollution through the details presented below:
  1. Facts and figures on water 
  2. Pollution wastewater 
  3. Improper waste disposal 
  4. Loss of biodiversity 
Water pollution is a problem that affects almost every country in the world. If steps are not taken to control this threat, would lead to disastrous consequences in the near future. The data relating to water pollution are presented with the help of the following points. 

  • Rivers in Asia are the most polluted. These rivers contain 20 times as much lead can be found in the bodies of the industrialized nations of other continents. The bacteria (from human waste) that are found in these rivers are three times higher than the global average. 
  • In Ireland, fertilizers and sewage are the main pollutants of water. About 30% rivers in this country have these pollutants. 
  • Contamination of groundwater is a major problem in Bangladesh. Arsenic is a major pollutant affecting the quality of water in this country. About 85% of the total area of Bangladesh has contaminated groundwater. This means more than 1.2 million citizens of this country are exposed to the harmful effects of arsenic-contaminated water. 
  • The king of the river in Australia is one of the most polluted rivers in the world. About 1 million sea birds, 100,000 sea mammals and many other creatures have been killed due to the effects of this acidic water in this river. 
  • The situation in America with regard to the pollution of waters is not very different from that in the rest of the world. It is observed that about 40% in the U.S. Rivers are polluted. You cannot use the water from these rivers for drinking, swimming or any other such activities. These rivers are not capable of supporting aquatic life. Forty-six percent of the lakes in the U.S. are not suitable to support aquatic life. 
  • The pollutants released into the water by the construction sector comprise cement, plaster, metals, abrasives, etc. These materials are much more harmful biological waste - which can at least be diluted easily. 
  • Thermal pollution of water is caused by disposal of hot water by industry. An increase in the temperature of the water is a threat to the ecological balance. Many aquatic creatures lose their lives due to thermal pollution. 
  • Drainage caused by rain is a major cause of water pollution. Waste materials such as oils, chemicals emitted by cars, chemical products for the home, etc., are the main pollutants in urban areas. Chemical fertilizers and pesticides remain to form the main pollutants are drained from the rain. 
  • The oil spill in the oceans is one of the global problems responsible for water pollution on a large scale. Thousands of fish and other aquatic creatures are killed by oil spills each year. In addition to oil, non-biodegradable waste materials such as plastics can also be found in the oceans. The article on the facts of ocean pollution should help you gain a greater understanding of the subject. 
  • The process of eutrophication is one in which the nutrients present in water bodies increased to a great extent. This leads to an increase in the primary productivity of that body of water. The result of eutrophication is the excessive growth of phytoplankton. Oxygen level in the water greatly reduces and thus the life of fish and other aquatic life are in danger. 

Control water pollution 
It 'important to understand that water pollution can harm us in the long run. Once the toxic chemicals entering the food chain, people have no choice but to live with and take them to the body systems. Reduce the use of chemical fertilizers is one of the best ways to remove pollutants from water from our environment. Otherwise, these chemicals would be washed continuously pollute bodies of water on earth. Efforts are being made to alleviate the problem of water pollution. However, the problem cannot be solved completely; effective measures must be taken to its mitigation. Considering the pace at which we are disturbing the ecosystem, it is necessary to follow strict guidelines to reduce water pollution. 

The facts pollution discussed in this article should be useful to raise concerns with regard to this problem. Lakes and rivers of the planet earth are increasingly polluted. Efforts were focused and organized by people and governments of all the nations of the world, should help to minimize the problem.

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Noise Pollution Facts

Noise Pollution Facts - Noise pollution is a nuisance to the environment caused by noise or sound that resulted in discomfort for living in the vicinity.

Noise Pollution Facts

Noise pollution caused by high-volume sounds that make the surrounding area into a noisy and unpleasant. The noise pollution caused by motor vehicle noise, aircraft, the roar of the engine factory, radio / tape recorder, which reads loud so disturbing hearing.

Kinds of pollutants are as follows.
  1. Chemical: such radioactive substances, metals (Hg, Pb, As, Cd, Cr, and Hi), Inorganic fertilizers, pesticides, detergents and oils.
  2. Biology: such as microorganisms, such as Escherichia Coli, Entamoeba Coli, and Salmonella typos.
  3. Physical: such as cans, bottles, plastic, and rubber.

Characteristics of noise pollution are a very disturbing noise, so sooner or later it will affect the condition of the human psyche. Not only that, if this condition is experienced in a long period of time, the impact will make the ears decreased sensitivity.

Humans have the ability to hear the sound limits ranging from 20 to 20,000 hertz. Or equivalent with a range of up to 140 decibels (noise level). Moreover, almost certainly the event of damage to the eardrum and the other organs in the human eardrum.

The maximum safe threshold for humans is 80 decibels. For those who work above the limit, in the long run will have a hearing loss. Therefore it is advisable to conduct a medical examination or hearing examinations periodically in an effort to prevent Noise Induced Hearing Lose or deafness due to noise.

In fact, noise pollution is not only disrupting the sense of hearing alone. Being in an environment with a disturbing noise can also lead to hypertension, because it is triggered by an unstable emotion. The results of epidemiological studies in the United States said, emotional instability caused by exposure to loud noise will cause stress. When coupled with the narrowing of blood vessels, it can stimulate the heart to work harder to pump blood throughout the body. For a long time, the blood pressure will go up, and there was hypertension.

A similar study conducted in 2003 by the Robert Koch Institute in Germany of 1,700 populations in Berlin. The results suggest, people who live with the traffic noise is likely to have high blood pressure than those who remained disenfranchised in a quieter neighborhood. Dr. Heidemarie Wende from the Federal Environment Agency, who headed the study, said the study shows that noise pollution increases blood pressure, and therefore have a negative effect on long-term health.
Although it may sound trivial, it helps us begin to notice our sense of hearing health. Because of the ability to hear is a priceless gift.

The impact of noise pollution
Noise pollution or noise pollution is the environmental disturbance caused by noise or noise resulting feeling unrested for living in the vicinity.

Noise Pollution Effecs
Causes of noise pollution. Substances or materials that could cause pollution are called pollutants. With the noise pollution, the noise experienced by everyday without realizing a major factor in noise pollution. Especially in the modern era like now is a lot of tools that use a machine that reads loud and use gadgets to play sound with earphones that sound directly on the eardrum without any intermediaries, it is a risky thing cause noise pollution. When you are at home, our ears filled with the boisterous pets sound, voice, TV, and many other things. Building projects, public transportation roaring sound and music are turned on others. In the cabin cars, ships and airplanes roaring engine noise. Also in the factory or workplace using large fans, compressors, transformers, and pumps. At the hotel, office or apartment usually noisy airways secrete. For example some noise which causes the noise power measured by DB / decibels is:

1. Bounder 80 DB
2. Train sound 95 DB
3. 104 motor engine DB
4. Thunder 120 DB
5. The jet took off 150 DB

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Reduce Pollution with Green Energy

Reduce Pollution with Green Energy - Green Energy can also be called as a result of an environmentally friendly energy source of energy production processes, and complementary components of the waste generated or not encumber or pollute the environment and life cycle of earth, water and air. 

Green Energy is more environmentally friendly than fossil fuels (coal, oil, and natural gas). That's why green energy sources include all renewable energy (wind energy, Hydropower, biomass energy, hydrogen, geothermal energy, etc.), and by definition must also include nuclear energy. Various studies even mention nuclear energy to be one kind of new and feasible introduced in the country. Because, in addition to more economical and efficient, this energy is environmentally friendly because it does not produce greenhouse gas emissions that cause global warming.

The term green energy is created to separate the fossil ingredients resulting high levels of pollution in fuel resulting in lower pollution and environmentally friendly renewable energy sources. Climate change has become a global threat, and the world needs to find clean energy options (fewer emissions), and thus the importance of green energy to be developed.

Many countries rely on fossil fuels like coal, oil and natural gas to supply the majority of their energy needs, but the dependence on fossil fuels presents a major problem. Fossil fuels are a finite resource. Eventually, the world will run out of fossil fuels, or it will be too expensive. Even fossil fuels also causes air pollution, water and soil, and produce greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming.

Renewable energy resources, such as wind, solar and hydropower, offering an alternative to fossil fuels. They produce little or no pollution or greenhouse gases. And this energy source will never run out.

Here are the types of Renewable Energy Sources:

Wind Energy
Wind energy is the use of wind as an energy source. Wind energy system is the change in kinetic energy (movement) of the wind into mechanical or electrical energy that can be used for practical purposes. Mechanical energy from the wind can be utilized cruise (transformation) and other interests, such as pumping water and a deep well, and grind grain

Water flowing downstream is power. Water is a renewable resource, continue to be filled by a global cycle of evaporation and precipitation. Solar heat causes the water in lakes and oceans to evaporate and form clouds. The water then falls back to earth as rain or snow, and flowing into rivers and streams that flow into the sea. The flowing water can be used to turn a turbine that drives a mechanical process to turn a generator. Energy flowing water can be used to generate electricity.

Biomass Energy
Biomass is organic material produced through the process of photosynthesis, either product or waste. Examples of biomass such as plants, trees, grass, sweet, agricultural waste and forest waste, feces and manure. Biomass can also be used to generate electricity and as fuel for transport, or to produce a product that will not require the use of materials

Hydrogen has great potential as a source of fuel and energy, but the technology needed to realize this potential is still in its early stages. Hydrogen is the most common element on Earth. Water is two-thirds hydrogen, but hydrogen in nature is always found in combination with other elements. Once separated from other elements, hydrogen can be used to power vehicles, replacing natural gas for heating and cooking, and to generate electricity.

Geothermal Energy
The heat from the earth to produce steam and hot water that can be used to generate electricity and produce electricity, or for other applications such as home heating and power generation for industry. Geothermal energy can be drawn from underground reservoirs by drilling, or from geothermal reservoirs are located closer to the surface.

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