Soil Pollution Facts

Soil Pollution Facts - Soil is the set of natural bodies existing on the Earth's surface, in places modified or created by man with earthy materials, containing living matter, and can accommodate a consortium outdoor plant. It is a natural body continually evolving derives what action, over time, various form factors (climate, lithology and living organisms) that gives rise to pathogenesis (set of physical, chemical and biological processes leading to the formation of a soil). The soil is an essential for life on Earth, as it allows the life of plants, animals and man, and at the same time is a limited resource that is destroyed easily. 

Soil pollution is a phenomenon of natural chemical weathering of the soil, caused by human activity that produces waste is not biodegradable (solid, liquid and gaseous). Soil contamination by excessive amounts of chemical alters the characteristics of the soil itself, such as to jeopardize not only protect, but also productive and ecological problems also causing groundwater and surface water, atmosphere , and the food chain also affecting human health. Damage can also be found at the economic level cleaning, restoring the environment, the loss of value of the contaminated areas. Contaminated sites are currently around 57. Some of these are 'Megasites' or have a historical contamination. Others may be Brownfields sites, abandoned, idle or under-used that were active long ago, these types of sites are present mainly in Lombardy, Piedmont and Veneto. But what contaminates soils are the most extensive chemical substances, heavy metals, organic compounds, nitrates . Each of these elements has a negative effect on the soil, but all clear set phenomena causing increasingly severe: 
  1. Soil erosion is a phenomenon which, while not polluting, causing extensive damage and affects 30% of the Italian territory. The water runoff wears away part of the surface of the soil, more rich in organic matter. 
  2. Sublimation is the accumulation of natural causes or anthropogenic salts in the soil that can reach a level that would affect the vegetative activity and production of crops and determine effects highly detrimental to the biodiversity of the soil and the strength of the all ' erosion. Salinization also leads to desertification which affects 1 million to 3 million hectares in Europe. This phenomenon also contributes to overfishing and unsustainable management of soil and climatic conditions. 

Because of pollution of the soil can also be intensive agriculture that with the use of agricultural machinery affect the compression of the soil, both superficially and in depth by changing its natural behavior. Intensive farming practices make use of pesticides, chemical fertilizers that can cause a surplus of nutrients, heavy metals and the spread of contaminants based. 

Always agriculture too can consume the ground and the soil is made waterproof with a consequent inability to perform its vital functions. 

A serious problem is the mining activity that produces irreversible changes in the landscape, soil loss and possible water pollution. In 2006, the sites were in operation 2991, but also numerous abandoned sites which affect particularly with the relative dumps and waste reservoirs washers that have not yet been subjected to interventions recovery. 

The industry particularly effects on the soil: acidifying, heavy metals, organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, which are released into the atmosphere and then fall to the ground, or scattered directly on this. 

The growing awareness of the importance of the integrity of the soil has meant that measures were taken to avoid or at least limit the negative effects on the environment and human health. In this regard, the Fischler reform act requiring agriculture to limit the use of chemical fertilizers as already said seriously affect the health of the soil.

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